Introduced in WordPress 2.5 is the Shortcode API, a simple set of functions for creating macro codes for use in post content. For instance, the following shortcode (in the post/page content) would add a photo gallery into the page:
WordPress Widgets are WordPress Plugins that add visitor visual and interactivity options and features, such as sidebar widgets for post categories, tag clouds, navigation, search, etc.
They were originally designed to provide a simple and easy-to-use way of giving design and structure control of the WordPress Theme to the user in the sidebar, which is now available on properly “widgetized” WordPress Themes to include the header, footer, and elsewhere in the WordPress design and structure.
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Posts are the entries that display in reverse chronological order on your home page. In contrast to pages, posts usually have comments fields beneath them and are included in your site’s RSS feed.
In the Comments Screen you can edit or delete content found in comments to your posts, and you can mark comments as spam, send comments to the trash, and reply to comments. A number of rules can be defined about who can write comments, and how comments are moderated. These rules are managed via Administration > Settings > Discussion.